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ELECTRIC DRIVE

Committed to an Electric Future

More than 110 models of plug-in hybrid (PHEV), fully electric (BEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are available now to consumers — and more are on the way. Over 150 models are expected to be on the market by 2026. Automakers are providing our customers with record-breaking choice in energy-efficient models, while also providing even safer, more environmentally friendly, affordable vehicles.  The automotive industry is investing more than $1.2 trillion by 2030 in its commitment to vehicle electrification. Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important part of our mission, both in the U.S. and around the world.
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Consumers

Consumers have more choice than ever before in electric vehicles (EVs). As recently as 2012, there were only a handful of EVs on sale. Today, there are more than 100 — including 61 battery electric, 48 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and 2 fuel cell vehicles — with more models in development. Today, consumers can buy EVs of all shapes and sizes — small cars, large cars, SUVs, minivans, and pickups in 2WD or AWD, with shorter and longer ranges, from economy vehicles to luxury models and everything in between. Yet, more work is needed to inform consumers about the benefits of going electric. Automakers and other stakeholders are spearheading consumer awareness campaigns, including in California and the in northeastern states.

Powertrain Options

61
BEV
2
Fuel Cell
48
PHEV
Model availability as of September 2023. Fuel cell electric vehicles are currently only available for sale in California where hydrogen refueling infrastructure is available to support these vehicles.
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Definitions

There are two types of plug-in electric vehicles on sale today.

Battery Electric Vehicles:
All-electric cars powered solely by a battery on board the vehicle. Range varies from 85 miles to 250 miles. “Refueling” times to charge the battery depend on the level of charging used – typically, 30 minutes to 1 hour for fast charging and 4 to 6 hours using Level 2 charging (e.g., home charger).

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles:
Vehicles powered by a combination of a battery on board the vehicles and a gasoline engine. Battery range varies between 15 and 50 miles, at which point the gasoline engine seamlessly operates to drive another 350-615 miles. Refueling time for the gasoline engine is 5 minutes (owners can drive a PHEVs indefinitely on gas only), and “refueling” time to charge the battery is typically 2-6 hours with Level 2 charging (e.g., home charger).

Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs):
All-electric cars powered by the conversion of hydrogen into electricity. Range of FCEVs is typically 350 to over 400 miles. Refueling times are about 5 minutes.

State Zero Emission Vehicle Mandate

ACC II States

Under the Clean Air Act, California is allowed to set vehicle air pollution standards that are more aggressive than federal standards, which other states can also adopt. California adopted the Advanced Clean Cars II rule (ACC II) in 2022, and since then, several other states across the country have adopted or are in the process of adopting the rule.  Those states include Colorado, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine*, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island*, Vermont, and Washington. (*denotes states pending ACC II adoption).  Some states have adopted the rule through 2032, while others have adopted the rule through 2035.

Starting in Model Year 2026, ACC II will require 35 percent of auto manufacturers’ sales to be zero-emission, ramping up to 100 percent in Model Year 2035.

EV Sales

EV purchases will need to increase dramatically in order to meet targets supported by California and other ACC II adopting states. In 2022, EV sales represented just over 7% of total sales nationwide, or about 935,000 vehicles out of 13.3 million new vehicles sold.

U.S. ZEV vs. Non-ZEV sales (2022)

Explore the Electric Vehicle Sales Dashboard

Geographic Disbursement of Electric Vehicles Per 10,000 Residents (2022)

DID YOU KNOW...

Battery electric vehicles...

...have something attractive for everyone:

  • powerful acceleration and precise handling
  • no more trips to gas stations
  • reduced maintenance costs
  • no tailpipe emissions
  • vehicles large enough for families

Fuel cell electric vehicles...

...are also a great all-electric option, with:

  • powerful acceleration and precise handling
  • 3-5 minutes refueling at hydrogen stations
  • driving range of 350-400 miles on a single tank
  • reduced maintenance costs
  • zero tailpipe emissions
  • vehicles large enough for families

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

...can be a great option for an EV, if you drive longer distances and hydrogen refueling stations are not available:

  • no tailpipe emissions when operating in all-electric mode
  • powerful acceleration and precise handling
  • extended range in gasoline-engine mode to travel longer distances, especially when charging is not readily convenient
  • vehicles large enough for families
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